SMOKING CESSATION AND HOW ANTIDEPRESSANT MEDICATION CAN HELP STOP DEPRESSED PATIENTS FROM SMOKING

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Smoking Cessation And Antidepressant Medication Essay Assignment Paper

# 1 Course Project Milestone #1: PICOT & Literature Review Worksheet PICOT Worksheet
Your Name: Date:
Your Instructor’s Name:

Purpose: To identify a problem or concern that nursing can change and select key words for a literature search. (SMOKING CESSATION AND HOW ANTIDEPRSSENT MEDICATION CAN HELP STOP DEPRESED PATIENT FROM SMOKING).

Directions: Use the form below to complete the PICOT assignment in Milestone #1. This includes filling in the table with information about your research question and your PICO(T) elements, as well as answering the Search Technique questions.
Step 1: Identify the Problem. What have you noticed in your work or school environment that isn’t achieving the desired patient or learning outcomes? What needs to change in nursing, what can you change with the support of evidence in the literature? Determine the focus of the research question – Assessment, Diagnosis, Etiology, Prevention, Prognosis, or Therapy.
Step 2: Identify a potential solution. Do you have an idea of what could be done to solve the problem?
Step 3: Create your research question. State your full question. For example: For new students entering an online program would a mandatory orientation course improve retention by increasing computer literacy and professional writing proficiency?
Step 4: Select the key PICOT terms for searching the evidence. Is the potential solution something for which you (as nurse or student) can find a solution through evidence research? In the above example the PICOT search terms would be:
P = students entering online program
I = mandatory orientation
C= elective orientation or none
O = increased retention
T = second semester

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Your research question:
Focus of the question:
Your PICO(T) Elements
P = Patients(s) or problem
Patient, patient population or presenting issue DEPRESSED ADULT IN A MENTAL HEALTH HOSPITAL .
I = Intervention under Consideration
C = Comparison
What is the current practice you are comparing to “I”? (This element may be implied or missing)
O = Outcome
What is the effect of the “I” on “P?” What is desired outcome?
T = Time
Is there a need to limit the timeframe for the intervention?

Search Techniques: Please answer the following questions below.
1. What three database(s) in the CCN library best address your research question (CINAHL, Cochrane, Medline, ERIC, (others; i.e. what subject heading would you use to perform your search)?

2. How can you focus or expand the search if initial search results are not satisfactory?

3. Describe ways you might refine your general search to reduce the number of results from your search. Can you use the EBSCO subject headings? What about the advanced search option using Boolean limiters such as AND. Once you have a reasonable number of relevant search results (10-30) what final limiters will, you set to reduce the search results further (i.e., English language limiter, age limiters, publication year limiters, peer-reviewed journal limiter, and/or human subject limiter)?

Literature Review Worksheet
Your Name:
Date:
Your Instructor’s Name:
Purpose: To find evidence to support an intervention that will change the outcomes.
Directions: Type your search question below. Find AT LEAST SIX (6) studies to support the need for change and the potential intervention you have selected to solve the problem. Using the table below, insert and describe your six chosen research articles.
Search Question:
APA Reference for Article
Give the APA-formatted reference for the article. Check your APA manual (Chapter 7) for correct reference format. Built in APA formats and library citations may not be in the correct format. Peer Reviewed
Identify whether it is peer reviewed or not Brief Description of Research
Address the question regarding how does the information in the article apply to the project problem or proposed intervention. Summarize in your own words. Type of Research
Indicate if the article describes qualitative research, quantitative research, a systematic review, a meta-analysis, or expert opinion. Discuss why this type of research is significant to the project. Study Outcomes/ Recommendations
Describe if the study sample is large and global enough so that conclusions can be generalized to other populations. Can you take the study recommendations and use them as a guide? Is there a research tool you can use?
1
2
3
4
5
6

Capstone Project Milestone #1:
Guidelines and Rubric
PURPOSE
Clear identification of the problem or opportunity is the first step in evidence-based nursing. This first milestone offers two tools to assist in the identification and gathering of evidence to link the problem, proposed intervention, and desired outcomes. Completion of the milestone will include identification of the problem or concern using the PICOT format and a literature search to find evidence to support an intervention that will change the outcomes.
COURSE OUTCOMES
This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes:
CO4 Develops and outlines a scientific, systematic decision-making process to integrate critical thinking with clinical judgment to assure safe and effective outcomes. (PO #4)
CO8 Selects evidence for best practice when planning professional nursing care for individuals, families, aggregates, and communities. (PO #8)
DUE DATE
Milestone #1 consists of the completion of one worksheet that contains to parts (i.e., the PICOT portion and the Literature Search portion). Submit the worksheet with the two portions completed to the Dropbox by the end of Week 2.
POINTS
This milestone is worth 200 points (100 for each portion of the worksheet).
DIRECTIONS
1. Read this document including the grading rubrics below.
2. Download the PICOT/Literature Search Worksheet from Doc Sharing. Consider what is the nursing problem or issue that you have uncovered. Make sure it is related to a nursing, i.e., one that a nurse can solve independently. Do not select a medical problem that is dependent upon a medical professional to resolve. Completion of this portion of the worksheet will offer a tool for your literature search.
3. For the Literature Search portion of the worksheet, find AT LEAST SIX (6) studies to support the need for change and the potential intervention you have selected to solve the problem.
4. Submit the completed PICOT/Literature Search worksheet to the Week 2 Dropbox. See the Week 2 Assignments page for step-by-step instructions on how to submit to the Dropbox.
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This is the second part
# 2
NR451 – Capstone Project Milestone #2:
Draft Design for Change Assignment Guide/Rubric
PURPOSE
Creation of a draft “Design for Change” proposal inclusive of your PICOT and Literature review information from your Course Project Milestone #1. Your plan is to convince your management team of a nursing problem you have uncovered and you feel is significant enough to change the way something is currently practiced. In the event you are not currently working as a nurse, please use a hypothetical clinical situation you experienced in nursing school, or nursing education issue you identified in your nursing program.
COURSE OUTCOMES
This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes:
CO1: Applies the theories and principles of nursing and related disciplines to individuals, families, aggregates, and communities from entry to the healthcare system through long-term planning. (PO #1)
CO2: Proposes leadership and collaboration strategies for use with consumers and other healthcare providers in managing care and/or delegating responsibilities for health promotion, illness prevention, health restoration and maintenance, and rehabilitative activities. (PO #2)
DIRECTIONS
1. Create a Draft proposal for your Design for Change Capstone Project. You will include the information from Milestone #1, your PICO question and literature review, as you compose this draft. Your plan is to convince your management team of a nursing problem you have uncovered and you feel is significant enough to change the way something is currently practiced.
2. The format for this proposal will be a paper following APA 6th edition.
3. The paper is to be 3 pages excluding Title page and Reference page.
4. As you organize your information and evidence, include the following topics:
a. Introduction – to the plan with evidence-based problem identification and solution.
b. Change Plan overview using the six steps of the Rosswurm and Larrabee Model (1999).
i. Assess need for change (problem identified)
ii. Link problem-intervention-outcomes
iii. Synthesize best evidence (incorporation of the literature review)
iv. Design practice change
v. Implement and evaluate change (evaluation must be measureable and time bound)
vi. Integrate and maintain change
c. Summary
5. Citations and References must be included to support the information within each topic area. Refer to the APA manual – Chapter 7 – for examples of proper reference format. Citations are to be noted for all information contained in your paper that is not your original idea or thought. Ask yourself “how do I know this?” and then cite the source. Scholarly sources are expected, which means using peer-reviewed journals and credible websites.
6. Tables and Figures may be added as appropriate to the project should be embedded within the body of the paper (see your APA manual for how to format and cite). Creating tables and figures offers visual aids to the reader and enhances understanding of your literature review and design for change.

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Change Plan Overview
(Steps 1-3) Activities to achieve the first three steps of change are fully described in detail and are based on the first three steps of the Rosswurm and Larabee six- step model: Assesses need for change, links problem-interventions-outcomes, and synthesizes best evidence (literature review)

28-30 Activities to achieve the first three steps of the change are described, not in detail, and are based on the first three steps of the Rosswurm and Larabee six-step model: Assess the need for change, links problem-interventions-outcomes, and synthesizes best evidence (literature review).

25-27 Activities to achieve the first three steps of the change are vague. The first three steps of Rosswurm and Larabee’s six-step model are not clearly identified. The literature review does not incorporate current literature supporting the need for change.

23-24 Activities to address and support change are not specifically addressed. The literature review is absent. Portions of the first three steps are missing or absent.

0-22 /30
Change Plan Overview
(Steps 4-6) Activities to achieve the last three steps of change are fully described in detail and are based on the last three steps of the Rosswurm and Larabee six- step model: Design practice change, implement and evaluate change (with measurable goals and a specified time frame), integrate and maintain change.

28-30 Activities to achieve the last three steps of the change are described, not in detail, and are based on the last three steps of the Rosswurm and Larabee six-step model. Design practice change, implement and evaluate change (with measurable goals and a specified time frame), integrate and maintain change.

25-27 Activities to achieve the last three steps of the change are vague. The last three steps of Rosswurm and Larabee’s six-step model are not clearly identified. The goals are not measurable or do not have specified time frames.

23-24 Activities to achieve the last three steps of change are not addressed. The last three steps of Rosswurm and Larabee’s six-step model are missing or absent.

0-22 /30
Summary Clear, solid summary summarizing the key points and six-steps of the change plan is included; ways to maintain the change plan are described.

14-15 A clear summary summarizing the key points and part of the six-steps of the change plan is provided; ways to maintain the change plan are mentioned, but not in detail.

12-13 A summary is present but is vague; parts of the six-steps of the change plan are highlighted; ways to maintain the change plan are not clear.

10-11 A summary is difficult to determine or absent. Key points of the change plan and six-steps are not recapped or are absent.

0-9 /15
APA format 6th edition: third person, grammar, sentence structure, punctuation, and spelling; sources correctly cited and referenced; title page, headers, and page numbers No errors to one error.

9-10 Two to three errors.

7-8 Four to five errors.

5-6 Multiple errors

0-5 /10
Total Points

Reference:

Rosswurm, M. A., & Larrabee, J. H. (1999). A model for change to evidence-based practice. Image, 31, 317-322.

Assignment
Running head: TITLE
1
Title
Name
Chamberlain School of Nursing
Instructor
NR 451 Capstone Course
YOUR TITLE HERE

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2
Your title here
This paragraph(s) is to introduce the paper. State the problem and potential solutions backed by evidence. Briefly, introduce the nursing focused plan. Remember this is a scholarly APA assignment so you cannot use first person.
Change Model Overview
In this first paragraph, provide an overview of the Rosswurm and Larrabee’s change model. Feel free to state why nurses should use this model as a guide to facilitate change. Under each of the second level headers listed below, you now link your identified topic to the Rosswurm and Larrabee’s six steps.
Step 1: Asses the Need for Change
Use Rosswurm and Larrabee’s six-steps to designing change; discuss the first step of assessing the need for change. Discuss the first step of assessing the need for change as it related to your topic. Restate the PICOT question from Milestone 1. Provide the internal data (what the current practice is) and compare the internal data to the external data (or evidence-based practices).
Step 2: Link the problem, interventions, and outcomes
Use step two, of Rosswurm and Larrabee’s six-steps to designing change, discuss the problem, potential interventions, and the desired outcomes as a result of the planned change.
Step 3: Synthesize the Best Evidence
Incorporate the literature review conducted in Milestone 1. Provide the important findings within the literature, by identifying at least six (6) studies in peer-reviewed articles supporting the need for change. Please do not use one paragraph for each of the six articles –
TITLE
3
instead synthesize the articles. Feel free to cite multiple articles within one sentence. Ideally, this section should only be a couple of paragraphs.
Step 4: Design Practice Change
Following step four of Rosswurm and Larrabee’s model, provide a paragraph or two describing how the desired practice change will be designed. Include the stakeholders and the key players who will be involved in the design for change.
Step 5: Implement and Evaluate the Change in Practice
Discuss implementing the change and how the plan will be evaluated by using step five of Rosswurm and Larrabee’s six-step model for change.
Step 6: Integrate and Maintain the Change in Practice
Use step six of Rosswurm and Larrabee’s six-step model for change to discuss how the change will be maintained.
Summary
Provide a clear, solid summary reviewing the key points and six-steps of the change plan.
TITLE
4
References
List you references here following APA citation guidelines. Please remember to double space all references. The retrieval data is no longer required. The second and third line of the reference should be indented. Review page 59 in the 6th edition APA manual.
As you can see, I have set the format correctly so that references are indented correctly. Also
another common error is that students forget that the journal name and volume number is in italic font. So please review citations carefully for this common error.
Starting in 2011 as article were published they were assigned doi numbers, prior to then some articles may not contain doi numbers. If the articles don’t then the new APA 6th edition rule is to cite the journal home url address. So if you retrieved an article from the Journal of Nursing Education and it does not have a doi number then you Google the website for the Journal of Nursing Education and cite that website as retrieved from.
Here are two examples, one with a doi number and one without.
So, H., & Brush, T. (2008). Student perceptions of collaborative learning, social presence and satisfaction in a blended learning environment: Relationships and critical factors. Computers and Education, 51(1), 318-336. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2007.05.009
Vonderwell, S., Xin, L., & Alderman, K. (2007). Asynchronous discussions and assessment in online learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39(3), 309-328. Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/learn/publications/journals/jrte
You can see the second one without a doi number has the journal’s home url address listed as the retrieval information. We no longer cite retrieved from a specific database.

Third part
NR451 – Project Milestone #4:
Final Design for Change Assignment Guide/Rubric
PURPOSE
Creation of a final “Design for Change” proposal inclusive of your draft, peer review feedback, and the contribution your project will make to the future of healthcare.
COURSE OUTCOMES
This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes:
CO3 Communicates effectively with patient populations and other healthcare providers in managing the healthcare of individuals, families, aggregates, and communities. (PO #3)
CO6 Plans clinical practice activities that integrate professional nursing standards in accordance with the nursing code of ethics and American Nurses’ Association (ANA) standards of practice. (PO #6)
CO7 Integrates the professional role of leader, teacher, communicator, and manager of care to plan cost-effective, quality healthcare to consumers in structured and unstructured settings. (PO #7)
DIRECTIONS
This is the final revision of your “Design for Change Assignment”. The final consists of your revised Design for Change draft, incorporated peer review feedback, and the contribution your project will make to the future of healthcare.
1. Create a proposal for your management team to convince them that the problem you have uncovered is significant and your plan for improvement will benefit the stakeholders.
2. Integrate the feedback received in from your peers in Milestone # 3 and your professor in Milestone #2.
3. The format for this proposal will be a paper following APA 6th edition.
4. The paper is to be 5 pages excluding Title page and Reference page.
5. As you organize your information and evidence, include the following topics:
a. Introduction – to the plan with evidence-based problem identification and solution.
b. Description of the contribution to the future of healthcare, inclusive of the stakeholders.
c. Change Plan overview using the six steps of the Rosswurm and Larrabee Model (1999).
i. Assess need for change
ii. Link problem-intervention-outcomes
iii. Synthesize best evidence (literature review)
iv. Design practice change
v. Implement and evaluate change (evaluation must be measureable and time bound)
vi. Integrate and maintain change
d. Evaluation Plan
e. Next Steps to maintain the change

6. Citations and References must be included to support the information within each topic area. Refer to the APA manual – Chapter 7 – for examples of proper reference format. Citations are to be noted for all information contained in your paper that is not your original idea or thought. Ask yourself “how do I know this?” and then cite the source. Scholarly sources are expected, which means using peer-reviewed journals and credible websites.
7. Tables and Figures may be added as appropriate to the project should be embedded within the body of the paper (see your APA manual for how to format and cite). Creating your own tables and figures offers visual aids to the reader and enhances understanding of your literature review and design for change.

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APA format 6th edition: third person, grammar, sentence structure, punctuation, and spelling; sources correctly cited and referenced; title page, headers, and page numbers
(25 pts) No errors to one error.

This paragraph(s) is to introduce the paper. State the problem and potential solutions backed by evidence. Briefly, introduce the nursing focused plan. Remember this is a scholarly APA assignment so you cannot use first person.
Contribution to the Future of Healthcare
Provide one-two paragraph(s) as to how your project will contribute to the future of healthcare. Please identify any key stakeholders.
Change Model Overview
In this first paragraph, provide an overview of the Rosswurm and Larrabee’s change model. Feel free to state why nurses should use this model as a guide to facilitate change. Under each of the second level headers listed below, you now link your identified topic to the Rosswurm and Larrabee’s six steps.
Step 1: Asses the Need for Change
Discuss the first step of assessing the need for change as it related to your topic. Restate the PICOT question from Milestone 1. Provide the internal data (what the current practice is) and compare the internal data to the external data (or evidence-based practices).
Step 2: Link the problem, interventions, and outcomes
In this paragraph discuss the problem, potential interventions one might undertake, and the desired outcomes as a result of the planned change.
Step 3: Synthesize the Best Evidence
Incorporate the literature review conducted in Milestone 1. Provide the important findings within the literature, by identifying at least six (6) studies in peer-reviewed articles supporting the need for change. Please do not use one paragraph for each of the six articles –
YOUR TITLE HERE
3
instead synthesize the articles. Feel free to cite multiple articles within one sentence. Ideally this
section should only be a couple of paragraphs.
Step 4: Design Practice Change
Following step four of Rosswurm and Larrabee’s model, provide a paragraph or two describing how the desired practice change will be designed. Include the stakeholders and the key players who will be involved in the design for change.
Step 5: Implement and Evaluate the Change in Practice
In this paragraph, concisely provide an overview of how you are going to implement and evaluate the change in practice. This is to be an overview paragraph as you are going to go in great detail in a later section.
Step 6: Integrate and Maintain the Change in Practice
In this paragraph, concisely provide an overview of how you are going to integrate and maintain the change in practice. This is to be an overview paragraph as you are going to go in great detail in a later section.
Implement & Evaluation Plan
. In this section you are to clearly identify the steps for implementation and the steps for evaluation for your proposed change. Although you mentioned this in the preceding section (step 5) – here is where you go into greater detail. Be sure that you have identified measurable
goals within a specified time frame. This section is worth 40 points – so great detail is expected.
Steps to Maintain Change
This section is also worth 40 points so you are to list all steps needed to maintain your proposed change. Here you provide all the details as to how you are going to make sure that this
YOUR TITLE HERE
4
change will still be around in one year, five years or even 10 years. This section is different than the overview you provided in the preceding section as here you provide great detail.
Conclusion
Provide a conclusion summarizing the key points of the paper.
YOUR TITLE HERE
5
References
List you references here following APA citation guidelines. Please remember to double space all references. The retrieval data is no longer required. The second and third line of the reference should be indented. Review page 59 in the 6th edition APA manual.
As you can see, I have set the format correctly so that references are indented correctly. Also
another common error is that students forget that the journal name and volume number is in italic font. So please review citations carefully for this common error.
Starting in 2011 as article were published they were assigned doi numbers, prior to then some articles may not contain doi numbers. If the articles don’t then the new APA 6th edition rule is to cite the journal home url address. So if you retrieved an article from the Journal of Nursing Education and it does not have a doi number then you Google the website for the Journal of Nursing Education and cite that website as retrieved from.
Here are two examples, one with a doi number and one without.
So, H., & Brush, T. (2008). Student perceptions of collaborative learning, social presence and satisfaction in a blended learning environment: Relationships and critical factors. Computers and Education, 51(1), 318-336. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2007.05.009
Vonderwell, S., Xin, L., & Alderman, K. (2007). Asynchronous discussions and assessment in online learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39(3), 309-328. Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/learn/publications/journals/jrte
You can see the second one without a doi number has the journal’s home url address listed as the retrieval information. We no longer cite retrieved from a specific database.

Reference:
1)
Rosswurm, M. A., & Larrabee, J. H. (1999). A model for change to evidence-based practice. Image, 31, 317-322.

2) Article Retrieval from AHRQ Website
Directions to Retrieve Articles from AHRQ Website (6 steps)
1. Type the acronym AHRQ in any Web search engine, such as Google or Yahoo, and then click on engine’s search function or press “enter” on your keyboard.
2. Find AHRQ homepage on the search results.
3. Type publication number 08-0043 into the AHRQ query box and click on “Search ahrq.gov”. 4. On the next screen, select Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-based Handbook for Nurses. 5.
6. Select two articles of interest from “Contents”, and proceed with the assignment.

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